Assignment Due Date: Tuesday, February 16th
▬ ASSIGNMENT: 235 drawings! (+235 points) (+15 bonus if on time!)
1. 3 different lenses: Find an example of a wide-angle portrait, 50mm portrait, and telephoto portrait on flickr. Sketch them and observe the differences. What happens to the facial features?
2. 10 skulls: Draw 10 skulls, with perspective in mind, at different angles and views. Draw 5 from reference, and 5 from imagination.
3. 20 structural portraits: After creating a basic head mannequin, use it while drawing from reference(with the neck and shoulders) at 20 different angles, keeping the eye level and perspective in mind.
[example, but with structure and more angles]
4. 8 portrait rotations: Choose one horizon line and rotate a bald head 360 degrees to the left. (i.e, Front view, Front ¾ view, side view, back ¾ view, back view, back ¾ view, side view, front ¾ view.) Attempt this from imagination and try to see where your ‘knowledge gaps’ are.
5. 50 portraits, alternating between reference and imagination: Using photo or video reference, draw portraits building from the underlying structure. Alternate between reference and imagination (25 imagination, 25 reference). Pay attention to the perspective and approximate the horizon to the best of your abilities. Draw the neck and shoulders as well to understand the connection.
6. 1 self portrait: Using a mirror, draw yourself from any angle and build up from a head mannequin. Note your eye level. Pay close attention to what your features look like at the chosen angle. Go slow! Place the features to the best of your abilities and measure your proportions carefully.
7. 1 portrait from imagination: Using all your previous practice, attempt a portrait from imagination, building from the underlying structure and perspective.
8. 10 hand structure drawings: Find ten photos and locate the underlying hand structure (hand mannequin), then attempt to draw the hand.
9. 2 drawings of your hand: Draw your hand from back view and palm view and pay careful attention to the large shapes and proportions. Study the proportions beforehand in a book like Loomis or Hogarth. Which finger extends the furthest? Where does the thumb end? How does the hand connect to the wrist from these views?
10. 50 hands, reference and imagination: From film (see below for film links), photography, or life, draw 25 hands from reference, and 25 from imagination. Draw the underlying structure and perspective first. (Make yourself a basic hand mannequin) Also draw the wrist at least, observing how it connects to the hand.
11. 10 feet structure drawings: Find ten photos and locate the underlying foot structure, then attempt to draw the foot.
12. 2 drawings of your foot: Draw your foot from underneath and on top. Note the proportions. You may use a mirror on the ground or have someone take a photo.
13. 50 feet, reference and imagination: Wikifeet has plenty of feet. Draw the underlying structure and perspective first. Draw the lower legs and ankles and observe how it connects to the feet.
14. 1 final drawing for the challenge: Create a final drawing for theDismissal of the Shrine Maiden challenge, building on all the previous knowledge the past three weeks.
**BONUS: Create 10 anatomical studies of the hands, head, and feet to help you understand the form better.
▬ 1: COMMON PROBLEMS
The face, hands, and feet are some of the most frequently complained about areas from beginning artists. With understanding of structure and practice, however, we can overcome these difficulties.
Perspective still applies. An artist must understand how to draw the hand when we look at a character from below, or a head from above. One must observe how the feet look if we’re standing in front of the character we draw, or if we’re slightly above or below. This will further complete our understanding and map of the human body.
1. Features are off-center (center of head not found or understood)
2. Features do not wrap around the underlying forms (eye around the eyeball, etc)
3. Features are not in perspective, while the head may be
4. Features are floating, not placed onto the skull / underlying structure
5. Head itself is out of perspective (i.e, drawing the hair like we are seeing underneath it but drawing the face like we are looking down on it)
6. No attention to planes or big anatomical shapes
7. No sense of proportion or placement
8. Not attached to neck or the rest of the body
▬ 2: HEAD PERSPECTIVE
It is useful to think of the head as a box or cylinder.Notice what happens when we look down upon the head, or up at the head.
Rough sketch showing how the eye level affects how we see the head.
A Kevin Chen demo showing how you can use a box to keep the head in simple perspective. For more demos, please visit this webpage.
Take care to observe how the eye level affects how we see the head! The following examples demonstrate a few different horizon lines.
Approximate HL in this portrait (which may actually be lower); her head is tilted down slightly (see more of the top of her head) but we can tell by her body that our eye level is close to around that area.
Here the camera is slightly above her eyes; notice what happens to the features in this perspective. The nose ‘points down’, the mouth ‘curves up’, and the eyebrows appear ‘closer’ to the eyes since we’ve above them.
Now we are below the subject; we see underneath the nose, and the mouth curves ‘down’. Even the eyes appear to tilt ‘downwards’. We start to see the underside of the chin and neck area.
This means that the features are affected by perspective as well. As the head rotates into ¾ view, the eye furthest from the viewer will appear smaller. The pupils (a perfect circle) will turn into ellipses. The mouth will distort. The nose will change. The extent of ear that we see or don’t see will change.
As the head rotates, the features change. Studying the features at different angles and head tilts after an artist learns the structure of the head will make the perspective feel ‘right’.
The same can be see as we change the camera from being above the head to below the head. See this example here.
Observe all of this in real life, with your family and friends or on yourself. It helps if you can get someone to film around your entire head, then you can observe how the features are affected as the camera moves.
▬ 2: HEAD STRUCTURE
Understanding the skull, or at least a simplified version of it, will help you understand how the features of the face ‘fit’ onto the skull. The skull should be simplified to the major shapes to prevent confusion.
One should also imagine where the ‘center’ of the skull is, as if we are cutting it open down the center, from the top of the head through the nose. This understanding will help in placing the features as well.
Understanding the skull will help you place the features later on, and a simplified version of the skull will help you place portraits into perspective easily.
After reading through some books (Loomis’ head and hands is excellent) and understanding the underlying structure, you will want to create a simple ‘head mannequin’ that you can place easily into perspective. You should be able to tilt it, turn it, rotate it, place it on a full-body figure, etc.
Your mannequin must have a centerline; this is crucial in order to build the rest of the structure and determine the proportions.
▬ 3: HEAD FORMS
Once the skull is understood, an artist should understand the planes or forms which support the features. For instance, the eye wraps around a sphere, the mouth as well, and the nose may be thought of as a projecting cylinder or square. Do your best to simplify the forms and then learn how to wrap the features around them.
Learning anatomy will help you understand the forms; which parts protrude, which go back into space. Studying facial planes may help this as well. But make sure you simplify it; learning the individual muscles will only go as far as you can simplify and attach them onto your basic structure!
Kevin Chen demo, showing form/anatomy wrapping around the structure of the head.
▬ 4: HANDS AND FEET
Understanding the hands and feet can be broken down into three pieces of knowledge: (and this applies to the portrait and human body too!)
1. The perspective
2. The proportion and shape
3. The structure
One should learn to see hands in perspective; the palm can be thought of as a ‘box’, as well as the fingers (or a cylinder). It’s best to study from full-body photos to observe how the hand changes.
The hands and feet, like any limb, should be in perspective. While a box doesn’t represent the underlying structure well, it helps us visualize how these body parts are placed.
The structure of the hands will be built on the skeleton as well. It can be simplified (see Hogarth, Loomis, etc) to make it easier to build the hand from any perspective.
The skeleton of the hand and how the hand is placed overtop. Note that the bump of the ulna (near the pinky) is an excellent landmark for understanding the rotation and placement of the hand.
CONNECTING IT TOGETHER: It is also essential to understand how the hand is connected to the wrist and arm. Below are some arm/wrist videos to study how it moves. You should observe your own hands and arms, film them, or get someone to film them.
Hand video 1
Hand video 2
Hand video 3
For feet, an excellent resource is wikifeet. (an an excellent fullbody resource in general!)
▬7:FURTHER QUESTIONS, DISCUSSION, AND READINGS
- How do lenses affect foreshortening and perspective in the head, hands and feet?
- How does head tilt affect the measurement and placement of features?
- What are some good landmarks on the head to help establish the big shapes in perspective?
- Where can you use overlap to help communicate the form of the head, hands, and feet? How does perspective affect the overlaps?
The Head and Hands Andrew Loomis
Figure Drawing and Invention Michael Hampton
Constructive Anatomy George Bridgman
Please discuss, critique, or add below!