Assignment Due Date: Sunday, March 29th
Bootcamp Hangout: We will have a bootcamp discussion and FAQ on Monday, March 23rd!
▬ ASSIGNMENT: 73 drawings!
- 1. 10 planes multiplied, mirrored, and rotated (bonus)
2. 5 mirrored curves, using different mirroring techniques
3. 10 interior and/or exterior buildings Using the measurement strategies you have learned, draw 10 architectural drawings from reference
4. 10 objects, reference and imagination: Cars, planes, buildings, and still life, using techniques below and in other reference books!
5. 25 drawings of natural elements: Using photos and/or going outside, draw as many types of foliage/trees/plants that you can find. Focus on shape variety! Observe the connection between the climate, location, season, time of day, and the types of foliage that is produced.
6. 10 drawings of environments: Draw a variety of different environments, anywhere from tundra to tropics.
7. Draw an interior or city (any type) from imagination: Research, plan, and decide where the location is, what belongs there, etc. For example, “A child’s room in a wealthy home in the winter time, in the morning.”
8. Draw an environment from imagination: Research, plan, and decide where the location is, what belongs there, etc. For example, “A cold mountain in resembling Northern Canada with a large crevasse in the middle of the day.”
9. Create a final background that could be used in the Joan of Arc challenge – Research and plan a background that would fit this challenge.
▬ 1: COMMON PROBLEMS
There are a couple issues artists experience when trying to create their own environments, backgrounds, or architecture:
1. Improper measurement in perspective, especially with manmade objects (“I don’t know why it looks flat”, or feeling like objects are floaty or out of place).
2. A lack of understanding and research as to what belongs within that environment (“I don’t know what to put in the background.”, or feeling that your environments seem empty or lacking realism.)
As seen in the previous weeks, perspective applies to everything. When you are creating an image, you should have a definite understanding of where the eye level of your viewer is (the horizon line).
▬ 2: MEASURING PLANES IN PERSPECTIVE
Learning to measure in perspective is an important skill to practice. Man-made architecture is generally filled with straight lines and heavily relies on measurement.
2.1: FINDING THE CENTER IN PERSPECTIVE Simply draw a diagonal from each corner of your plane. The center will be at the intersection.
This is useful for ellipses as well. Simply draw an ellipse within a plane, draw the diagonals, and you will find the center of the ellipse!
2.2: MULTIPLYING PLANES IN PERSPECTIVE Multiplying back in perspective is very useful for measurements, spacing, and repetitive elements.
1. Take the center of your plane back to the vanishing point.
2. Draw a diagonal from the nearest corner of the plane through the intersection of the new line and far edge of plane
3. This will be where the new plane begins. This can be repeated back as many times as you like.
2.3: MIRRORING PLANES IN PERSPECTIVE
This is useful for drawing symmetrical objects. To do this, we create another ‘mirror’ plane (spaced at our preferred distance, just keep in mind it will be mirrored so the distance will be doubled when you mirror the plane).
1. Draw a mirror plane and find the midpoint by using the plane you want to multiply (A1)
2. Draw a diagonal through the midpoint from the furthest edge of the A1 plane to get the closest edge of the A2 plane.
3. Draw a diagonal through the midpoint from the closest edge of the A1 plane (gets the furthest edge of the A2 plane)
RECOMMENDED: Research how you can mirror tilted and rotated planes in perspective. (hint)
2.4 CREATING DIVISIONS IN PERSPECTIVE
It’s easy to measure equal distances in perspective with the following method:
1. Create a line touching the corner of the bottom of your plane, out of perspective, with a ruler (the one in photoshop works fine as well). Create the desired divisions on that line (equal or unequal). Take the furthest point back to the furthest corner of the plane and to the horizon line. This will be our measuring point.
2. Use the measuring point to connect to the divisions on your out of perspective line. At the plane intersection, that is where your division will occur.
▬ 3: MIRRORING CURVES IN PERSPECTIVE
Learning to mirror curves in perspective will help you draw arches, cars, planes, designs, etc. It is recommended to read further into Scott Robertson’s How to Draw book for more insight.
TO MIRROR A CURVE:
1. Create a plane with a curve drawn inside. Multiply the plane back in perspective.
2. Choose a point that you wish to mirror, then draw from the intersection to the diagonal and to the center. Mirror on the other side.
3. Repeat for multiple points!
RECOMMENDED: Discover other methods of mirroring curves in perspective, as well as how to you’re your curves three dimensional! [hint 1] [hint 2]
▬ 4: INCLINED PLANES (UPHILL, DOWNHILL)
As we previously studied, parallel lines will always converge to the same vanishing point.
Therefore, if there are a separate set of parallel lines not converging to the true horizon line (uphill, downhill), it has its own horizon.
The same applies for an inclined plane.
▬ 4: APPLYING PERSPECTIVE TO NATURE
It’s common for artists to omit the application of perspective to environments and natural scenery. However, this will lead to the ‘floaty’ problem and lack credibility to the backgrounds or environments you create.
Like we learned with the human figure, the eye level will change how we view anything in nature. Think about how we see the underside of a tree when we stand underneath it, or the way grass looks when we are above or below it. How do clouds look in wide-angle perspective versus flat perspective? How do they look when they are far away versus right above us?
Clouds with a wide angle perspective vs telephoto here (200mm).
For example, when drawing or painting trees, artists may omit the way the branches go everywhere in space and only draw them horizontally. Trees, like limbs on a figure, can stretch, twist, and turn in a multitude of directions.
Rather than drawing a tree as a flat shape, think of it in perspective.
Even more, certain details-- such as cracks in trees, burnt parts, moss depending on the sun and climate, the way the branches are shaped, how wildlife has affected the plant-- can add life and credibility to an image.
Pay attention to the variety of shapes in nature too! It’s too often that an artist will stick to a single shape or icon for certain elements in nature. Keep your eyes open to the different types of foliage around you, the variety is endless!
▬ 5: RESEARCHING & PLANNING
When creating an illustration containing architecture, an environment, or background, it’s important to know exactly what you’re painting or it will lack credibility to the viewer or feel ‘out of place’.
For example, with environments, understanding [url=http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Köppen_climate_classification]climate zones[/url] is a good place to start. From there, you can familiarize yourself with the basic foliage and geography that will impact the way you create your illustration.
Tundra vs. Rainforest
For cities, architecture, and interiors, the same would apply (and climates would influence the way they’re built too!). Location and cultural research would be beneficial as well—if you are creating an exotic illustration of a belly dancer, researching and studying Middle Eastern architecture and environment would benefit you greatly (and influence how you design the character as well!)
Asking yourself questions will help you research what you need to include and study in your environment!
Here are example questions you could think about when creating an environment from imagination. If you were designing architecture, these factors would definitely influence the way you design it!
- Where is this location?
What time of day is it? Season?
What is the climate zone?
What type of foliage or fauna is there?
What is the terrain like?
How is the climate affecting the surroundings?
How is the geography affecting the surroundings?
Is it inhabited? Are there signs of life? Who’s been there? Is it isolated?
History? (Past floods, fires, droughts, ancient architecture, landmarks, glacial remnants, crevasses, etc)
Use the image above to try to answer some of the questions above!
▬ 6: FURTHER READING & QUESTIONS
- 1. How can you use mirrored curves to draw a car?
2. How can you rotate an opening door in perspective?
3. How can a set of stairs be measured in perspective?
4. How does weather impact an environment? What geographical elements can you research to help your work?
5. How can you use your research of an environment to influence how you design it? (including architecture and characters)
6. Looking back on your old work, do you see a lot of repeating background shapes? What could be there instead? Try answering the questions above to an old piece and notice how you could have changed it.
Please feel free to discuss, critique, and add to the information above!
Hi everyone! First of all, apologies for the delay in this bootcamp. It is impossible to find the chunk of time I need to put it together when life has been busy the past month and other priorities have to take precedent. Secondly, please keep in mind this is my (very limited) free time, so there could be delays in the future as well. Otherwise…keep rockin! :D And definitely check out as many other resources as you can when doing the assignments!
Scott Robertson – How to Draw
Perspective Drawing Handbook – Joseph D’amelio
Marshall Van Druff Perspective Series